Climate seasons, south hemisphere (Peru):
Peru is located in the equatorial area of South America, but its climate does not correspond to its geographical location for two fundamental factors, the Andean Mountain Range and the cold marine current of Humboldt, also called Peruvian current.
The Peruvian current and the geographical relief of Peru condition the climate characteristics in three big areas (from west to east), the coast, the Andean area or mountain, and the Amazon area or jungle, corresponding for each one of them particular climate characteristics.
The coast presents, in general, a tempered climate, warm in the north, a little colder to the center and south. The rains are almost nonexistent to exception of the north area where strong rains are presented in the months of summer. In some areas of the central and south coast, as the cities of Lima and Arequipa, in the months of winter is common the presence of very delicate rains called garúa or chachani.
The Andean area or mountain has in general a cold and dry climate, in the north area the rains are more intense.
The Amazon area or jungle has a tropical, hot and humid climate, with presence of torrential rains that are increased in the months of summer.
Considering that the previous descriptions are very generic and the geographical relief is variety, we will present the international climate classification of Köppen that establishes 11 main types of climates, of which Peru possesses 8, that is the reason why Peru possesses a unique diversity of climates in the world.
1. Semi warm and very dry climate: (desert, arid, subtropical). Average temperature of 19ºC - 66.2 °F. This climate is presented in almost the whole region of the coast, from Piura to Tacna and from the marine coast to 2,000 meters above sea level (6,060 feet). The Peruvian current of cold waters transmits its coldness to the coast, and it is the cause of the absence of rains during the whole year.
2. Very dry warm climate: (desert or arid tropical). Average temperature is 24°C - 75.2ºF. This climate is presented in the north coast of Peru from Piura to Tumbes and from the marine coast to 1,000 meters above sea level (3,030 feet). Presence of strong rains among December to April, and very dry from May to November, due to the influence of the marine current of El Niño.
3. Temperate sub-humid climate: (steppe and inter-Andean low valleys). Average temperature is 20ºC. - 68ºF., with seasonal rains. This climate is presented in the Andean area and fundamentally it is given in the inter- Andean valleys located between the 1,000 and 3,000 meters above sea level (3,030 and 9,090 feet).
4. Cold or northerly climate: (Andean valleys). Average temperature is 12ºC. - 53.6ºF., rainy summers and dry winters with strong icy. This climate corresponds to the Andean area between the 3,000 and 4,000 meters above sea level (9,090 12,121 feet).
5. Frigid climate: (tundra) Average temperature is 6ºC. - 42.8ºF., with very cold and dry summers. This climate corresponds to the Andean area between the 4,000 and 5,000 meters above sea level (12,121 and 15,151 feet)
6. Snowy climate: (gelid) Average temperature is 0ºC. - 32ºF. or less. This climate corresponds to the Andean area from the 5,000 meters above sea level (15,151 feet) or more. The climate is influenced by the big masses of snow and ice that are usually formed in the Andean high summits; in this area are the lagoons and glaciers that gives origin to the rivers of the Pacific basin or of the Amazonas River.
7. Very humid semi warm climate: (Andean oriental slope). Average temperature is 22ºC. - 71.6ºF., with tendency to increase in territories of lower heights, permanent rains during the whole year. This climate corresponds to the high jungle, located on Andean oriental area between the 1,000 and the 400 meters above sea level (3,030 and 1,212 feet).
8. Humid warm climate: (Amazon plain). Average temperature is 25ºC. - 77ºF., without notable differences of temperature during the whole year. This climate corresponds to the low jungle, located on the Amazon plain between the 400 and the 80 meters above sea level (1,212 and 242 feet). The rains are torrential, especially in the months of summer, originating an exuberant flora and a rich fauna.